Double Grind- Knife edge bevels are ground on both side of the blade. This includes V, all types of Convex edges and Hollow grind edges.
Single Grind- Knife edge bevel is ground only on one side of the blade. This includes all types of Chisel grind edges.
Flat (V)- The simplest and most widespread in factory knives. The edge tapers from both sides of the blade. Gets sharp, sacrifices durability though. Induces extra drag, because of the sharp transition point.
Convex- My favorite. Provides the most durable edge at a given angle and has less drag compared to other edge grind types due to smooth transition lines. Instead of tapering in a straight line, the edge is slightly curved outwards. Famous Japanese Samurai katanas featured this type of the edge.
Semi-Convex or Asymmetrical Convex- Not very common, combines durability of the convex edge and ease of sharpening of the V edge, until the edge gets real dull. Jerry Busse used it a lot in his knives, see Busse Combat Knives>.
Asymmetrical Flat (V)- The edge tapers on the straight line from both sides, but the angles are uneven. Used for more durable edges, sacrifices sharpness.
Compound or Double Bevel- The edge first on the straight lines, but at the end the angle(secondary bevel) is greater than at the beginning(primary bevel). Provides stronger, durable edge. Sacrifices sharpness. One way of improving cutting ability and durability of the softer steels. Cuts better then V edge at the same angle as the secondary bevel, yet lasts longer that V edge if ground at the same angle as the primary bevel.
Hollow- The edge tapering line is curved inwards, in other words it's concave. Gets very sharp, but low durability. Induces extra drag due to the shoulders and sharp transition points.
Chisel or Single Bevel- The edge is flat from one side, tapers on the straight line from the other side of the blade. This is the sharpest edge, found mainly on chisels in western world. Japanese use it widely in their kitchen knives, however the back side(Urasuki) of those knives as usual is concave, significantly reducing the drag.
Chisel With Back Bevel- Variation of the Chisel edge. Back side has a microbevel, as usual at a very low angle 3°-5° or so. Sacrifices little bit of sharpness for increased edge durability.
Chisel With Urasuki- Urasuki is traditionally found on Japanese single beveled knives. Back side of the blade is concave to reduce the drag during cutting.